Chapter 33: Europe and North America (1945–Present)

Questions to know:
? What issues troubled Europe after the Cold War?
? How have recent economic and political trends affected the West?
? How has Europe moved toward greater unity?
? How have social trends changed the West?
? How did Britain’s policies change after World War II?
? How did French power and prosperity revive?
? How did Germany reunify?
? What problems have other democratic nations faced?
? What actions has the United States taken as a global superpower?
? What developments have shaped the economy, government, and society of the United States?
? What issues has Canada faced in recent years?
? What ideas guided Soviet political, economic, and foreign policy?
? Why did the Soviet Union collapse?
? What problems have Russia and the other republics faced since the fall of the Soviet Union?
? How did Eastern European nations oppose Soviet domination and strive for democracy?
? What were the effects of the fall of communism?
? What were the causes and effects of civil war in Yugoslavia?


Section 1: The Western World - An Overview
Western loans and investments
Ethnic clashes, especially in the Balkan
The nuclear peril
Nuclear Test Ban treaty
Détente
Berlin Wall
NATO

OPEC
oil
Welfare system
Recession
Service industries

In 1952, six nations — France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg — set up the European Coal and Steel Community.

In 1957, the same six nations formed the European Community (EC) or Common Market
In 1973, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland were admitted to the Common Market.
In the 1980s and 1990s, the Common Market expanded and took on the name European Union (EU
Obstacles to European Union
Nationalism
Past conflicts
Fear that France may dominate Union
Charles de Gaulle anti-US and Britain

Euro


Social Trends
Classes
Ethnic diversity
Women
Family life
Migration to Western Europe

Section 2: The Western European Democracies
Britain: Political Pendulum

Labour Party
Conservative Party
Margaret Thatcher
Common Market
Labour Party again
IRA
Tony Blair forced
Gordon Brown

The “Chunnel”

France
Charles de Gaulle
Jacque Chirac

How Did Germany Reunify?
Willy Brandt
Ostpolitik
Konrad Adenauer
Reunification
Berlin Wall.
Helmut Kohl

Other Democratic Nations
Italy
Spain
Francisco Franco
Portugal
Greece
Sweden, Denmark, Norway

Section 3 North America
United States: A Global Superpower
Military Alliances
economic aid
Korean War
Vietnam wars
Joe McCarthy
Invasion of Kuwait.
Bosnia and Kosovo
After 9/11 invaded Iraq again

Only one Superpower left...Fall of the USSR

American Economy and Government
national budget deficit.

social programs

Civil Rights and Society
Segregation
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Malcolm X
“I have a dream”
racial prejudice

Literature: I know why the caged bird sings by Maya Angelou
Movie, book, poem

Canada
Diverse
Quebec’s French-speaking people
separatism
cultural domination of the United States.

North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA).
pollution.

Section 4: The Soviet Union: Rise and Fall of a Superpower

Khrushchev
de-Stalinization
Cold War

Leonid Brezhnev

Sputnik I
benefits
Collectivized agriculture.
little incentive

“We will Bury You!””

Soviet Foreign Policy
Warsaw Pact

The Truman Doctrine

Cuban Missile Crisis

Chernobyl

Collapse of the Soviet Union: Cause and Effect
Mikail Gorbachev
Glasnost
Ronald Reagan
Perestroika

Problems in The Russian Republic
President Boris Yeltsin

defaulted
Ruble
President Vladimir Putin
Minorities
Chechnya

The Other Republics
new nations
Ukraine
Kazakhstan
Belarus
Czecholoslovakia (Czech Republic)
Vaclav Havel
Ethnic conflict erupted

Section 5:A New Era in Eastern Europe: Soviet Domination
Pope John Paul II and Communism
Poland
Lech Walesa
Solidarity
Free elections

Fall of Communist Governments

New Nations in Eastern Europe
Civil War in Yugoslavia
Marshal Josip

Bosnian Muslims
ethnic cleansing
Slobodan Milosevic
Kosovo
War crimes

The Balkan region remained unstable.